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Congee (Chinese Rice Porridge, 粥) Recipe


When it comes to Chinese food staples, steamed rice and noodles are often at the top of the list. However, there’s another beloved dish that often goes unrecognized: congee. This humble Chinese rice porridge, also known as Jook or Zhou in Chinese, is made simply with rice and water. It’s like a soft, runny version of steamed rice, with a velvety and smooth texture that allows the rice grains to melt in your mouth. In some regions of China, it’s even referred to as Xi Fan, meaning diluted rice, due to its consistency.

Congee (Chinese Rice Porridge, 粥) Recipe
Congee (Chinese Rice Porridge, 粥) Recipe

A Versatile Comfort Food

Congee may be a simple dish, but it holds great significance in Chinese cuisine. It is consumed throughout the day, whether as a standalone meal or paired with other dishes for breakfast, lunch, dinner, or even as a snack. Many Chinese people consider congee the ultimate comfort food, especially when they are feeling nostalgic or under the weather. While it may not have any specific medicinal properties, it can provide a sense of healing and comfort.

Varieties of Congee

Congee comes in a wide variety of flavors and styles across China and other Asian countries like Japan, Korea, and Cambodia. It can be served plain with or without toppings and seasonings, or as a savory dish with added proteins and vegetables. Alternatively, it can be prepared as a sweet congee with beans, nuts, and sweet root vegetables. This post focuses on the basics of making plain congee, with an added shortcut method, as well as tips for creating flavorful variations.

Choosing the Right Rice

For congee, any type of white rice except basmati works well. Chinese or Japanese short-grain rice and Thai long-grain jasmine rice are all suitable choices. While glutinous rice can be mixed with white rice, it is not traditionally used on its own for congee. Brown rice, although not commonly used in Chinese congee, can also be an option.

Using Cooked Rice

In theory, you can use cooked rice to make congee, as it significantly reduces the cooking time. However, using raw rice is recommended for a fresher and more fragrant taste. Leftover rice is best used for making fried rice, as it retains its texture and flavors better.

Rice-to-Water Ratio

Unlike steamed rice, congee requires a larger amount of water. This is because the rice grains soak up more water, and it takes time for them to break down and create the desired consistency. While there isn’t a fixed ratio for making congee, a range is often suggested. For 1 cup of uncooked rice, you would typically need 8 to 10 cups of water. Northern regions of China tend to use less water, while southern regions, like Canton, prefer a creamier congee that requires more cooking time. It’s best to start with the 1:8 ratio and adjust as needed.

To Rinse or Not to Rinse

Rinsing the rice is not necessary unless the instructions on the rice package advise you to do so. Mass-produced rice typically doesn’t have debris, and the surface starch has already been partially removed. However, if you prefer, you can rinse the rice lightly. Be cautious not to overdo it, as you’ll need some starch to achieve a creamy congee texture.

The Pre-Soaking Question

While pre-soaking the rice isn’t necessary, it can slightly reduce the cooking time. However, there’s another convenient and practical shortcut to speed up the process—freezing the rice. Rinse the rice thoroughly, drain, and place it in a Ziplock bag. Freeze the rice for a few hours or overnight. When you’re ready to make congee, take out the frozen rice, break it into smaller pieces, and proceed with the cooking process. Freezing the rice helps break down the rice grains faster, resulting in a smoother congee in less time.

Congee (Chinese Rice Porridge, 粥) Recipe
Congee (Chinese Rice Porridge, 粥) Recipe

Cooking Methods

There are two primary methods for cooking congee: stovetop and slow cooker.

Stovetop Method:

  1. Boil the water in a pot.
  2. Add the rinsed rice to the pot, stir well, and reduce the heat to low.
  3. Cover the pot partially, leaving a small gap to allow steam to escape.
  4. Simmer the congee for approximately 35 to 40 minutes, stirring occasionally to prevent sticking.
  5. If you prefer a smoother texture, use a whisk to vigorously stir the congee, breaking down the rice grains further. This creates a creamier and silkier consistency.
  6. The congee thickens as it cools, so if you plan to serve it later, stop cooking before it reaches your desired consistency.

Slow Cooker Method

  1. Rinse the rice and add it to the slow cooker.
  2. Add water in a ratio of approximately 1:10 (rice to water) for a creamier consistency or 1:12 for a lighter consistency.
  3. Cook on low heat for 6 to 8 hours or on high heat for 3 to 4 hours, depending on your preference and the desired texture.
  4. Stir occasionally during cooking to ensure the rice doesn’t stick to the sides or bottom of the slow cooker.
  5. Adjust the cooking time based on your desired consistency. The longer you cook, the smoother and thicker the congee becomes.

Seasoning and Toppings

Plain congee can be delicious on its own, but it’s often enjoyed with various toppings and seasonings. Here are some popular options:

  1. Soy Sauce: Light soy sauce is commonly used to enhance the flavor of plain congee. Add a few drops to taste and adjust as needed.
  2. Sesame Oil: Drizzle a small amount of sesame oil over the congee for a nutty aroma and flavor.
  3. Scallion Oil: Heat vegetable oil in a pan and sauté chopped scallions until fragrant. Drizzle the scallion oil over the congee, providing a savory and aromatic twist.
  4. Chili Oil: For those who enjoy a spicy kick, add some chili oil to your congee.
  5. Black Bean Sauce: Black bean sauce adds a robust and savory flavor to congee. Mix a spoonful of black bean sauce with some hot water to dilute it, and drizzle it over the congee.
  6. Preserved Mustard Stem: This traditional topping provides a unique tangy and slightly bitter taste. Finely chop the preserved mustard stem and sprinkle it on top of the congee.
  7. Eggs: There are various ways to prepare eggs for congee. You can boil, fry, or make marbled tea eggs, salted duck eggs, or century eggs. Slice or quarter the eggs and add them as a protein-rich topping.
  8. You Tiao (Chinese Fried Dough): This deep-fried dough stick is a popular accompaniment to congee. It adds a crispy and crunchy texture to the soft congee.
  9. Pork Floss: Also known as “rou song,” pork floss is a dried and fluffy meat product commonly used as a topping for congee. The finely shredded pork floss melts into the warm congee, creating a delightful contrast in texture.
  10. Century Eggs: Century eggs, also called preserved eggs or hundred-year-old eggs, are a traditional ingredient in congee. These eggs undergo a preservation process that transforms their texture and imparts a unique and pungent flavor. Sliced or diced century eggs add a distinct richness to the congee, enhancing its overall taste profile.
Congee (Chinese Rice Porridge, 粥) Recipe
Congee (Chinese Rice Porridge, 粥) Recipe


In conclusion, congee is a versatile and comforting dish that can be customized to suit various preferences and tastes. Its simplicity and adaptability make it a beloved dish in many Asian cultures. Whether enjoyed as a hearty breakfast, a nourishing meal, or a comforting remedy for an upset stomach, congee brings people together with its warm and satisfying qualities. So, embrace the art of making congee, explore different flavors, and savor this timeless dish that transcends boundaries and brings comfort to countless individuals around the world.

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